Can One Vaccine Provide Immune Protection Against Multiple Pathogens?

Can One Vaccine Provide Immune Protection Against Multiple Pathogens?

The idea of one vaccine offering a wide range of protection against multiple pathogens or strains is an attractive concept – it would reduce the demands on healthcare systems to deliver vaccination programmes, provide improved uptake of vaccines and reduce the burden for patients who may not have easy access to vaccination centres around the world. The MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccination is an effective example but in reality, the vaccine contains three live, attenuated viruses, delivered in one dose. Can a single vaccine offer protection against multiple pathogens?
When we think of the latest vaccines, such as SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, they fall into two categories, mRNA vaccines and viral vector-based vaccines. Both types of vaccines are designed to generate specific antibodies against the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A CD4 Helper T-Cell component may exist for these vaccines1 (in this case, only the spike protein region of the virus). This contrasts with a natural infection, in which a full T-Cell response, both CD4 Helper and CD8 Cytotoxic, is generated to the entire virus.
Antibody-generating vaccines appear to be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in its current form, albeit potentially subject to reduced efficacy as the virus mutates at the spike region – the target of the vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies.
RNA viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 exist as a cloud of genetically different virions, mutating rapidly with the selection of dominant strains of the virus being driven by transmission advantages (if a new mutation requires fewer virions to infect an individual, that strain is likely to have an advantage) as well as response to immunologic pressure. Viral mutation is a feature of RNA viruses and effective vaccination requires the ability to provide broad, mutation-agnostic protection to a population that lasts for extended periods of time.
The Coronavirus family is a large group of RNA viruses, all with the characteristic crown-like spikes on their surfaces. The spike protein (the target of the currently licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines) is different for each type of Coronavirus, which is why antibodies generated in response to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are unlikely to offer immune protection against other members of the coronavirus family such as MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome causing virus) or SARS-CoV-1 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome causing virus). With an antibody generating vaccine, cross-reactive immunity is highly unlikely.

Why can’t we vaccinate against the common cold?

The common cold can be caused by a wide range of viruses, including Rhinoviruses, Picornaviruses, Coronaviruses and Adenoviruses, among others. In turn, each of these viruses have multiple serotypes, meaning hundreds of different possible viral sequences which the immune system must learn to recognise. Antibody generating vaccine technology would require identifying an epitope (antibody binding site) that is common to the majority of serotypes – however, this is extremely challenging as each serotype differs in its structure, and therefore any changes at the antibody binding site will prevent effective antibody binding, and prevent the vaccine working effectively.
The idea of one vaccine offering protection for multiple pathogens goes back to the very start of vaccination – when Edward Jenner, in 1796, first documented patients previously exposed to Cowpox appeared to have immune protection from Smallpox – the concept of cross-reactive immunity was born. What Jenner had actually discovered was that the natural immune response to Cowpox also recognised similar peptide ‘markers’ expressed on infected cells for both viruses – thereby allowing the T-Cells from a previous Cowpox infection to rapidly respond to a new and potentially more deadly Smallpox infection. Immune memory to Smallpox or Cowpox infection is extremely long-lived, antiviral CD8 T-cell memory has been demonstrated for up to 83 years after Smallpox infection2.
We are seeing emerging evidence of cross-reactive immunity based upon natural infection in the current pandemic. While the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak rapidly overwhelmed medical facilities of particularly Europe and North America, accounting for 78% of overall global deaths attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, only 8% of deaths have occurred in Asia where the outbreak originated. Interestingly, Asia and the Middle East have previously experienced multiple rounds of Coronavirus infections, perhaps suggesting build-up of acquired immunity to the causative SARS-CoV-2 that underlies COVID-193.
The reason for this ‘cross reactive’ immunity’ is thought to be due to the T-Cell response. T-Cells do not directly interact with viruses in the body. Instead, in their naïve form, they are ‘primed’ by antigen presenting cells (APCs) which present thousands of peptides from all parts of the viral structure to the naïve T-Cells, and so activating the T-Cells to seek cells infected by the viruses who express these foreign peptides on their surface in response to infection.
This idea is the subject of ongoing research and offers the potential to create vaccines that are constructed using ‘conserved’ peptides that may be common to multiple pathogens from the same family. This can potentially be achieved by using peptide sequences from conserved, internal viral regions of the viral genome. These regions are often critical to the life cycle of the virus and therefore cannot mutate significantly without making the virus obsolete. This is the concept of the T-Cell Priming vaccines.
The idea of ‘priming’ naïve CD8+ T-Cells with a set of peptide ‘signals’ that are both conserved and common to multiple viruses from the same family is an exciting area of research and offers the hope of one vaccine against multiple diseases in the future, and vaccines that are less likely to be impacted by viral mutation than antibody-generating vaccines.
Whilst there is no current vaccine that offers the dual protection from SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, there are T-Cell vaccines in development that have shown this cross-reactive protection in murine models and are entering Phase I clinical trials in 2021.
To find out more about T-Cell priming vaccines and the research that we are conducting at Emergex, please visit our website www.emergexvaccines.com or email us at info@emergexvaccines.com.

T-cell priming vaccines offer the potential to provide faster, broader and longer lasting immunity to reduce serious illness associated with infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Here’s why…

T-cell priming vaccines offer the potential to provide faster, broader and longer lasting immunity to reduce serious illness associated with infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Here’s why…

The human immune system has evolved over millennia and includes a multitude of different immune effector cells, antibodies and signalling molecules. As our knowledge of this complex system grows, new scientific insights may provide clues on how to develop new and more effective vaccines.
This is particularly relevant and timely as SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge and spread globally, causing further outbreaks of COVID-19 around the world.

The need for innovation to develop new vaccines

At a basic level, the aim of a vaccine is to prepare the body to have the capacity to turn a dangerous pathogen into a mild irritant and reduce the chance of onward transmission. RNA viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, exist as viral quasispecies or mutant clouds – populations of large numbers of variant genomes subject to constant change due to replication errors, so viral mutation and new dominant variants are inevitable.
Antibody generating vaccines have helped reduce the severity of COVID-19 disease but may offer more limited protection from new viral variants1, for which viral variant booster vaccines may be required in the future. There is an acute need for innovation to explore new vaccines that provide broader, mutation agnostic and longer-lasting immunity. In addition, we need vaccines that are easy to store and administer, reducing the demands on our healthcare systems.

Antibody generating vaccines

Antibodies are large Y shaped protein molecules produced by the B lymphocyte cells of the immune system and which circulate in the blood and bind to ‘foreign objects’, including pathogens such as viruses. Antibody-generating vaccines are well established and operate through the production of viral-specific antibodies. These attach to specific parts of the viral structure (such as Spike protein in SARS-CoV-2) allowing extracellular virions to be cleared from the body by other cells in the immune system.
However, viruses mutate at many points especially surface proteins; if this includes the antibody target it may reduce the efficacy of the vaccine. It is important to note that viruses replicate using the host cells apparatus and once inside a cell, are ‘hidden’ from circulating antibodies.

The case for T-cell priming vaccines

T-cells are a type of white blood cell, and one of the most important roles they serve in the immune system is identifying and killing viral infected cells from the body, preventing viral replication. Infected cells express ‘marker’ peptides on their surface, some of which will come from the infecting virus and many of which will be highly conserved (unlikely to be subject to mutation) and unique to families of viruses. ‘Priming’ naïve T-cells (naturally occurring CD8+ T Lymphocytes) prepares the body to recognize these markers of cellular infection and the body creates virus specific T-cells in readiness for subsequent exposure to that pathogen. Once ‘primed’, a subsequent exposure to the virus is rapidly met by an ‘army’ of virus specific cytotoxic T-cells, which can kill infected cells before they can produce active viruses through replication – thus an infection is never allowed to take hold.
A T-cell response targets the infected cells (the ‘virus factories’) and not the virus itself using a large number of ‘marker’ peptides derived from many parts of the viral structure– so mutations of the virus are less likely to lead to a loss of efficacy as the cellular markers of infection are often highly conserved peptides from the virus.
T-cell priming vaccines still allow the body to undergo its natural immune response to a subsequent infection (for example, the creation of neutralizing antibodies), however this will not be driven by high levels of live, replicating viruses as the T-cell response will be immediate and viral replication is likely to be halted before an active infection can take hold. T-cell based immunity has been shown to last for decades and so T-cell priming vaccines offer the hope for a much broader and longer lasting immune response2.
Emergex is developing next-generation T-cell priming vaccines to tackle major global diseases. T-cell priming vaccines offer potential efficacy against a range of viral pathogens including Coronavirus, Dengue, Influenza, Zika, Yellow fever, as well as intracellular bacteria. Find out more about our approach at www.emergexvaccines.com.

Emergex Receives Regulatory Approval for a Phase I Clinical Trial in Dengue of a T-Cell Priming Vaccine

  • Swiss regulatory authorities, including the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic) have granted approval for a Phase I clinical trial of Emergex’s Dengue vaccine candidate
  • The Phase I clinical trial will evaluate the safety and look for markers of T-Cell immune response in healthy volunteers

Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 30 June 2021 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’, or ‘the Company’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of 100% synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response, announces that it has achieved regulatory approval for a Phase I clinical trial of its Dengue vaccine. The study has received approval from Swiss regulatory agencies and the first participants are expected to be enrolled soon.

The Phase I trial, named naNO-DENGUE, will evaluate Emergex’s novel T-Cell priming vaccine, which has been designed to deliver broad and long-lasting immunity by priming the body’s T-Cell response to provide rapid clearance of infected cells in the event of an infection.

This double-blind, randomised and comparator-controlled study will evaluate the safety of the investigational vaccine, PepGNP-Dengue. Evidence of a T-cell mediated immune response as a surrogate of protection against severe Dengue disease will also be evaluated.

In addition to advancing Emergex’s Dengue vaccine development, the study will provide proof-of-concept for a rapidly scalable modular peptide vaccine platform that has the potential to provide cross-reactive immunity to a range of existing or emerging viral pathogens (based on the selection and inclusion in the vaccine of conserved- viral peptides from multiple parts of the virion) – thereby reducing the chances of viral mutation impacting the efficacy of the vaccine.

Emergex uses 100% synthetic vaccines to ‘prime’ naive CD8+ T-Cells to generate virus specific CTL (CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte cells) to kill infected cells prior to productive viral infection (host cells releasing intact virions) – thus preventing viral replication and disease in the vaccinated person. Emergex T-Cell priming vaccines have the potential for long-lasting immunity without requiring seasonal boosting, and may be better suited to rapidly mutating viruses than current vaccine technologies that rely primarily upon an antibody based immune response. Emergex vaccines have been designed to be administered via the skin using micro needles and to be stable at ambient room temperature for beyond 3 months, facilitating rapid and efficient distribution across the world and making administration of the vaccine more patient friendly.

Athan Papadopoulos, Emergex Vaccines Chief Medical Officer: “Emergex’s approach to vaccine development may offer significant potential benefits over existing approaches in terms of disease prevention and applicability to a range of serious diseases. T-Cells, as also seen lately, are one of the most important parts of the immune system. Without T-Cells, we could not survive. We are proud to be working on this programme and welcome the opportunity to gather data to support the development of this novel technology.”

Laurens Rademacher, Chief Technology Officer at Emergex, commented: Not only is this an exciting step forward for our clinical program, the seal of approval from the world class Swiss regulatory authorities provides a validation of both our Dengue vaccine candidate and our technology platform as a whole. This marks a significant milestone in the development of our first-in-human T-Cell priming vaccines which are designed to harness the power of the body’s natural immune defences to provide broad and lasting immunity.”

 

For further information, please contact:


At the Company
Emergex Consilium Strategic Communications
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director

Phone: +44 (0) 1235 527589

Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com

 

Chris Gardner / Ashley Tapp/ Carina Jurs

Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700

Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

 

 

About Emergex

Emergex, a biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, with an operating subsidiary in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex uses a synthetic nano gold carrier system to deliver a specific set of peptides to the body’s immune system, generating a robust T-Cell response that has the potential to provide a rapid and broad immune response that may last for decades.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programmes are a vaccine for Dengue Fever. The vaccine technology offers the potential for cross-reactive immune responses for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine, a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine, a therapeutic Hepatitis B vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease. The Company also has a collaboration in place with Brazil-based Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz for the development of several vaccine candidates, including a potential vaccine for COVID-19.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.

Emergex Appoints Dr. Anthony Sedgwick as Non-Executive Director

Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 17 June 2021 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’, or ‘the Company’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response, is pleased to announce that Dr. Anthony Sedgwick has been appointed to the Company’s Board as a Non-Executive Director, effective April 2021.

Dr. Sedgwick is an experienced biotech executive, bringing over 40 years of international experience in the sector to Emergex. He was head of anti-inflammatory Biology at Roche between 1986-1990, and after a 2 year period in Marketing at Roche became Global head of Clinical operations until 2002. At Roche, Dr. Sedgwick was responsible for clinical development, leading to the launch of several products including Invirase® and Tamiflu®. He was also a member of the Company’s Global development committee, and on the Board of Roche Products Ltd UK. Dr. Sedgwick has been the Chief Executive Officer of four biotechnology companies, including Cambridge Biotechnology (2002-2005), DanioLabs (2005-2007), Novacta (2007-2011) and Silence Therapeutics (2011-2012), and has held Chairman positions at numerous companies including Plastid AS (2008-2011), ThioLogics (2011-2013) and most recently at Cotton Mouton Diagnostics (2017-2019).

Dr. Sedgwick holds a PhD in Experimental Pathology at St Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical School in London. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists and an honorary Professor at Swansea University Medical School.

Dr. Finian Tan, Chairman of Emergex, commented: “I am delighted to welcome Anthony to our Board of Directors. He brings in an extraordinary range of experience from companies across the sector which will be invaluable to Emergex as we progress our novel vaccine candidates towards the clinic.”

Dr. Anthony Sedgwick, added: “Emergex is pioneering unique vaccine technology to address some of the world’s most challenging and immediate infectious disease threats, including COVID-19. I look forward to working with the Board at this exciting time for the Company.”

– Ends –

 

For further information, please contact:

Emergex Consilium Strategic Communications
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director

Phone: +44 (0) 1235 527589

Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com

 

Robin Cohen, Director of Business Development

Phone: +44 (0) 1235 527589

Email: rc@emergexvaccines.com

Chris Gardner / Ashley Tapp / Carina Jurs

Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700

Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

 

About Emergex

Emergex, a biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, with an operating subsidiary in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex combines validated technologies together with the very latest scientific insights in immunology and virology to develop its vaccines, including the use of synthetic peptide codes determined on actual infected cells and using a proprietary gold nanoparticle carrier system for programming.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programme is a vaccine for Dengue Fever, which may also be disease modifying for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex also has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine and a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease. The Company also has a collaboration in place with Brazil-based Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz for the development of several vaccine candidates, including a potential vaccine for COVID-19.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.

Emergex Strengthens Senior Management Team

Appointments of Mr Robin Cohen as Business Development Director and Ms Susi Osborne as Manufacturing Director

Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 23 February 2021 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’, or ‘the Company’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response, today announces the appointment of Mr Robin Cohen, as Business Development Director. The Company is also pleased to announce the appointment of Ms Susi Osborne as Manufacturing Director, who joined Emergex in January this year.

Today’s announcement follows the recent collaboration and development agreement with the Immunobiological Technology Institute (Bio-Manguinhos) of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) in Brazil to develop a COVID-19 vaccine using Emergex’s next generation synthetic T-Cell vaccine technology. These appointments will support this and future collaborations, providing additional business development, commercial and manufacturing expertise to advance the Company’s pipeline of vaccine candidates.

Mr Cohen joins Emergex from Janssen-Cilag, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, where, since 2017, he was working as part of the EMEA regional Business Development Team and also responsible for Business Development in the UK pharmaceutical business. He focussed on creating partnerships and strategic alliances to bring new assets into the organisation and enhance the capabilities of existing franchises. Prior to this role, Mr Cohen was the Commercial Lead for Infectious Diseases where he  was responsible for the launch of a number of new therapeutic treatments in the fields of Hepatitis C and HIV. Prior to this, he was successful in a number of senior leadership roles in both Sales and Marketing fields across multiple therapy areas.

Ms Osborne has a wealth of manufacturing knowledge, with over 25 years of experience within the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. She joins Emergex from ADC Biotechnology, which focuses on the development of antibody drug conjugates, where she was the Head of Manufacturing Operations since 2018. During her time in ADC Biotechnology, she played a crucial role in the development, design and build of a new GMP manufacturing site. Prior to ADC Biotechnology, Ms Osborne held senior positions at Ipsen, GSK and Novartis, overseeing key operational and manufacturing roles in addition to providing regulatory affairs advice. At Ipsen, Ms Osborne played a key role in the new facility build of a GMP manufacturing facility and the tech transfer of a product from a CMO. The facility was successfully licenced by the FDA in 2008.

Storme Moore-Thornicroft, co-founder and COO of Emergex commented: “We are delighted to have filled these two important roles as we look to accelerate development of our promising pipeline of novel, synthetic vaccine candidates. Robin is well placed to oversee discussions with current and potential partners interested in our vaccine programmes. The appointment of Susie Osborne as Manufacturing Director is timely and reflects the progress we are making with our vaccines and the need to ensure swift manufacturing capability is firmly in place to meet clinical trial demand.”

Robin Cohen, Business Development Director, commented: “Emergex is at the cutting edge of vaccine development and I am excited to be coming on board at a key time in the Company’s development. There is a pressing need globally for effective vaccines that are easy to administer, manufacture and store, criteria which Emergex’s technology is designed to meet. I am looking forward to working with the team at Emergex to advance vaccine candidates with the potential to prevent some of the world’s most deadly infectious diseases.”

Susi Osborne, Manufacturing Director, commented: “ The current pandemic has seen huge scientific advances in vaccine development. However, vaccine development is not without its challenges including how we manufacture such vaccines and protect against variants of the virus. Emergex is well placed to address many of these issues, its vaccines are both easy to manufacture and could deliver greater protection for longer against more variants. I welcome the opportunity to be part of the Emergex team, bringing to bear my extensive manufacturing experience as we look to expand our vaccine manufacturing capabilities and develop candidates that can meaningfully address current and future pandemics.”

– Ends –

For further information, please contact:

At the Company
Emergex
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director
Phone: +44 (0)1235 527589
Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com
Consilium Strategic Communications
Chris Gardner / Sue Stuart / Ashley Tapp / Carina Jurs
Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700
Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

About Emergex
Emergex, a biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, with an operating subsidiary in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex combines validated technologies together with the very latest scientific insights in immunology and virology to develop its vaccines, including the use of synthetic peptide codes determined on actual infected cells and using a proprietary gold nanoparticle carrier system for programming.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programme is a vaccine for Dengue Fever, which may also be disease modifying for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex also has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine and a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease. The Company also has a collaboration in place with Brazil-based Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz for the development of several vaccine candidates, including a potential vaccine for COVID-19.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.

Emergex Notes U.S. Government Reports Highlighting the Importance of T-Cell Immunity in Controlling Viral Infections

Emergex Notes U.S. Government Reports Highlighting the Importance of T-Cell Immunity in Controlling Viral Infections

  • U.S. federal appropriations reports encourage support for T-Cell vaccine approaches for pandemic influenza during the 2021 fiscal year

Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 28 January 2021 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’, or ‘the Company’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response, notes language directed at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) included as part of the Fiscal Year 2021 appropriations measures in the U.S. House and Senate, which highlights the importance of T-Cell immunity in addressing pandemic influenza (flu).

The House Labor, HHS, Education and Related Agencies (Labor/HHS) Appropriations report, H. Rpt. 116-450, and Senate language issued along with a draft Senate Labor/HHS bill, encourage the Department of Health and Human Services to prioritize research, development, and manufacturing of T-Cell vaccine approaches to address pandemic flu, further recognizing the need to advance research in this field.

Professor Thomas Rademacher, CEO and co-founder of Emergex, commented:Emergex has been investigating and building on the importance of T-Cell mediated immunity and looks forward to continuing research efforts in this promising area. We are encouraged by the recognition of the importance of a robust T-Cell immune response and its role in disease prevention. We view the appropriations language as supportive of our efforts as well as others who are advancing the field of T-Cell immunology. The new generation of vaccines will be focusing on the induction of proper T-Cell immunity and CD8+ T-Cell responses.

Emergex Vaccines is currently developing a 100% synthetic and universal (seasonal and pandemic) influenza T-Cell vaccine, which is suited as an on-demand line of defense against a potential influenza pandemic, as well as protection against seasonal influenza strains. For decades, the focus of prophylactic vaccines was to elicit neutralizing antibodies, but it has become increasingly evident that T-Cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in obtaining a durable immune response. Growing evidence suggests that neutralizing antibodies fail to provide the desired long-term efficacy and protection against several viral infections, including influenza.

The House and Senate appropriations language was finalized on December 27, 2020, when President Trump signed into law The Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2021, H.R. 133, a legislative package that combines $1.4 trillion in annual government funding and $900 billion in coronavirus relief measures.

The Senate language states:

T Cell-mediated Immunity.—T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in controlling viral infections. To create a universal influenza vaccine, it is necessary that HHS prioritize research, development, and rapid manufacturing technologies that enable application of T cell vaccines as a complementary yet alternative approach to the use of vaccines containing live attenuated or killed micro-organisms.

The House language, included under the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), within the National Institutes of Health (NIH), states:

Pandemic Influenza.—T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in controlling viral infections. To create a universal influenza vaccine, the Committee encourages NIAID to prioritize research to facilitate the application of vaccines that induce strong cross-reactive T cell responses as a complementary or alternative approach to vaccines primarily designed to elicit an antibody response.

– Ends –

Emergex Vaccines signs Collaboration Agreement with Brazil’s Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz for the Development of a COVID-19 Vaccine

 

  • Bio-Manguinhos, is a world leader in vaccine development and manufacturing and one of the productive units of Fiocruz, one of the world’s most respected public health research
    institutions

Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 5 January 2021 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’, or ‘the Company’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response, today announces that it has signed a collaboration and development agreement with the Institute of Technology on Immunobiologicals (Bio-Manguinhos) of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) in Brazil to develop a COVID-19 vaccine using Emergex’s next generation synthetic T-Cell vaccine technology.

The agreement provides a framework under which both parties will work together to progress certain immunotherapeutic programmes, including a vaccine candidate for COVID-19, through a regulatory pathway for the Brazilian National Health Service. Emergex will also support the performance of studies, including clinical trials, and to manufacture, market, promote and distribute certain infectious diseases vaccines within the National Health Service of Brazil.

Emergex has already completed preclinical development work including toxicology and immunoproteomic research into the MHC Class I peptide expression library for cell surface expressed peptides on SARS-Cov-2 infected cells, which define the repertoire of an effective T-Cell immune response to the COVID-19 disease.

In August 2020, a previous research collaboration between Emergex and Bio-Manguinhos / Fiocruz resulted in the determination of the MHC CD8 T-Cell epitope expression library for Fiocruz’s commercial yellow fever vaccine.

Bio-Manguinhos / Fiocruz and Emergex will share initial set up and development costs. Further financial details have not been disclosed.

Storme Moore-Thornicroft, COO and co-founder of Emergex, commented: “Bio-Manguinhos Institute of the Oswald Cruz Foundation, is a world leader in the development and manufacturing of vaccines. This agreement, which will enable us to work alongside Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz to develop our COVID-19 vaccine candidate, is an important validation of the potential of our technology. Access to a COVID-19 vaccine which is both easy to manufacture and deploy is critical, particularly in a country as large as Brazil and where there have been more than 6 million cases of COVID-19 reported to date.”

Sotiris Missailidis, Deputy Director of Technological Development of Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz, commented: “Given the geographical scale and logistical difficulties that underlie distributing a vaccine across Brazil, Emergex’s expertise and technology could play a vital role in overcoming such challenges, including the potential to allow for mass rollout of a vaccine for COVID-19. Emergex vaccines are 100% synthetic, requiring no biology for manufacturing, making rapid scale-up and production possible. Furthermore, delivery through a microneedle system on a single patch, make them easy to administer, requiring less clinical intervention, and allowing for wider public adoption. We look forward to working with Emergex on this and other co-development projects to bring safe and affordable vaccines to the Brazilian public market.

– Ends –

For further information, please contact:

At the Company
Emergex
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director
Phone: +44 (0)1235 527589
Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com
Consilium Strategic Communications
Chris Gardner / Sue Stuart / Ashley Tapp / Carina Jurs
Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700
Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

About Emergex
Emergex, a biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, with an operating subsidiary in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex combines validated technologies together with the very latest scientific insights in immunology and virology to develop its vaccines, including the use of synthetic peptide codes determined on actual infected cells and using a proprietary gold nanoparticle carrier system for programming.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programme is a vaccine for Dengue Fever, which may also be disease modifying for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex also has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine and a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease. The Company also has a collaboration in place with Brazil-based Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz for the development of several vaccine candidates, including a potential vaccine for COVID-19.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.

Background to Emergex Vaccine Approach:
Both naïve T-Cells and memory T-Cells are activated in an acute viral infection via trogocytosis (or cross-dressing). This is a process in which a donor antigen presenting cell (APC) has acquired MHC Class I peptide complexes from an infected cell by membrane capture. This critical pathway ensures that the immune system is only activated by viral peptides that are present in infected cells and the resulting T-Cell repertoire accurately reflects only those targets expressed on infected cells. The other mechanisms of APC processing, such as direct priming (requires APC to be infected by the virus) or cross-presentation (requires APC to process protein fragments of the virus after the virus has successfully replicated and is producing virions) can lead to off-target T-Cell responses and a delay in response. Trogocytosis is the main mechanism of alloantigen recognition in acute allograft rejection. Emergex vaccines incorporate only peptides shown to be physically presented on class I molecules (independent of length or predicted affinity) in infected cells (pMHC target expression library) which can lead to cross-dressing of APCs – in contrast to peptides predicted hypothetically by computer or predicted from T-Cell reactivity to peptide pools in convalescent blood – many of which will be off-target.

By the use of microneedle injection from a small patch, Emergex unique TAP-responsive peptide delivery system mimics the trogocytosis process by directly cross-dressing skin reactive dendritic cells which are actively transported by rapidly migrating dendritic cells to multiple lymphoid organs. In vivo murine experiments on Dengue, Zika, SARS-2 and influenza have shown that doses as low as several femtomoles can generate robust T-Cell immune response resulting in Cytotoxic T lymphocytes that kill viral infected cells.

Emergex Vaccines Raises US$11 million to Advance Pipeline of Synthetic T-Cell Vaccines for Infectious Diseases

  • Investor support further endorsement of vaccine development strategy
  • Novel approach to vaccine development could address urgent global need for safe,
    effective vaccines that can be rapidly developed and deployed

Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 18 November 2020 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-cell immune response, today announces that it has raised $11 million in a funding round supported by new and existing investors. This round follows a successful $11 million Series A completed in January 2020.

The proceeds of this funding round will, among other things, enable Emergex to further advance and execute its vaccine development strategy, producing vaccine candidates for some of the world’s most threatening and virulent diseases such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever and pandemic flu.

Emergex’s next generation vaccines have been designed to expand the body’s natural immune response by programing CD8+ T-cells to rapidly recognise and respond to pathogens. This approach is aimed at providing effective prevention of disease while eliminating the allergic, autoimmune or antibody mediated side effects associated with traditional vaccines. Emergex’s vaccines are 100% synthetic – requiring no biology for manufacturing – thus having the potential to be rapidly produced and cost-effectively scaled. They are delivered through a microneedle system which allows for convenient administration and require no cold chain in storage or distribution.

Storme Moore-Thornicroft, co-founder and COO of Emergex, commented: “The current COVID19 pandemic, the ongoing threat of pandemic flu and the global challenge of Dengue Fever demonstrate the urgent need to rethink traditional approaches to vaccine development. This new funding round demonstrates our investors’ confidence in the Company to meet that need and belief that our unique technology can play a critical role, creating safe, effective vaccines that can be rapidly developed and deployed.

“We welcome our new investors to the Company and appreciate the continued support of our existing investors and look forward to rapidly advancing the clinical development of our novel vaccine candidates.”

– Ends –

For further information, please contact:

At the Company
Emergex
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director
Phone: +44 (0)1235 527589
Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com
Consilium Strategic Communications
Chris Gardner / Sue Stuart / Ashley Tapp / Carina Jurs
Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700
Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

About Emergex

Emergex, a UK-based biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex combines validated technologies together with the very latest scientific insights to develop its vaccines, including using synthetic peptide codes determined on actual infected cells and using a proprietary gold nanoparticle carrier system for programming.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programme is a vaccine for Dengue Fever, which may also be disease modifying for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex also has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine and a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Brazil-based Oswaldo Cruz Foundation ‘Fiocruz’ for the development of viral vaccines. This initially covers the development of a vaccine that universally
targets diseases within the flavivirus family such as Dengue Fever, Zika and Yellow Fever but could be expanded to include the development of vaccines to target other viral families that are endemic to the region.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.

Emergex Vaccines and George Mason University Identify T-Cell Epitopes Presented by SARS-Cov-2 Infected Cells

  • First detailed, empirical analysis of Class 1 epitopes presented by SARS-Cov-2 infected cells which define the T-Cell repertoire necessary for cytotoxic T-Cell function
  • MHC expression library provides an accurate basis for COVID-19 T-Cell vaccine and related diagnostics development

Doylestown PA, USA and Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 15 September 2020– Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response, today announces the determination of a Class I MHC expression library, or ligandome, for SARS-Cov-2 infected cells, in collaboration with George Mason University (‘GMU’), National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, Virginia, USA.

During the collaboration researchers at GMU grew SARS-Cov-2, the virus which causes COVID-19, in human cells expressing ACE-2 representing six HLA supertypes. The MHC Class I peptide expression library for cell surface expressed Class I molecules and the precursors for internal Class I bound peptides feeding the surface pool were determined using Emergex’s proprietary immunoproteomics 2-D liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry platform at Emergex Vaccines, USA.

The library of approximately 30,000 Class I bound viral-derived peptides contains the first detailed empirical data for Class I epitopes that are presented by a SARS-Co-2 infected cell (potential T-Cell target cell) and therefore defines the T-Cell repertoire necessary for CD8+ cytotoxic T-Cells to perform their kill-and-clear function of an infected cell.

The most abundant viral derived subset of peptides (COVID-19 ligandome) was determined by reference to all possible positive and negative strand RNA derived peptides without sequence bias. The library also provides a search tool to determine the physical presence of any predicted expression of a SARS-Cov-2 derived peptide sequence at mass accuracy of approximately 10 ppm. Details of the library have potentially significant implications for the development of T-Cell targeted COVID-19 vaccines and also T-Cell memory diagnostic reagents which can definitively determine the pre-exposure history of COVID-19. The data revealed “hot spots” of Class I peptide derived from open reading frames (ORFs) of the proteome not previously identified in the literature and demonstrated the lack of concordance between the empirical method and in silico or inference (megapools) methodologies.

Emergex will apply the insight gained in this study in its onoing programme to generate a second generation COVID-19 vaccine which is intended to generate a lasting and safe cellular immune response. Emergex’s next generation vaccines have been designed to expand the body’s natural immune response by programming CD8+ T-Cells to rapidly recognise and respond to pathogens. This approach is aimed at providing effective prevention of disease while eliminating the allergic, autoimmune or antibody mediated side effects associated with traditional vaccines. Clinical trials of the first Emergex COVID-19 vaccine candidate are intended to start in Q4 2020.

Professor Thomas Rademacher, CEO and co-founder of Emergex, commented: “It is increasingly clear that T-Cell responses to SARS-Cov-2 are the major if not dominant factor in the immune response to COVID-19 infection and a vaccine which can safely and effectively harness this
response could be critical to controlling the pandemic. Studies on T-Cell memory recall to predicted peptides in convalescent COVID-19 individuals have inferred the presence of a strong T-Cell response in these patients. However, some studies suggest healthy and asymptomatic individuals also appear to have a previous T-Cell memory response to COVID-19 making the origin and diversity of this memory response ambiguous.”

Dr. Xiaofang Huang, Leading Scientist, Emergex Vaccines USA, commented: “To date only computer predictions or data from screening of 15-20-mer pools and megapools of peptides derived from spike protein or extensive regions of the SARS-Cov-2 proteome for recall responses have been used to infer the identity of the CD4 T-Cell epitopes on SARS-Cov-2. Neither approach can definitively conclude that a CD8+ T-Cell response against SAR-Cov-2 infection has occurred, since the actual viral targets are unknown and computer predictions are required to anlayze the pools for Class I epitopes.
“Our empirically determined library provides a rational basis for CD8+ T-Cell vaccine and T-Cell diagnostics development. We believe this is a significant step towards an effective vaccine and look forward to progressing our programme in the coming months.”

Dr. Aarthi Narayanan, Associate Professor of Systems Biology in George Mason University’s College of Science, added: “This is an exciting and highly pertinent approach to develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 which takes into account the critical need for a robust and targeted T-Cell response to elicit functional immunity. We are excited to be working with Emergex on this venture.”

– Ends –

For further information, please contact:

At the Company
Emergex
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director
Phone: +44 (0)1235 527589
Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com
Consilium Strategic Communications
Chris Gardner / Sue Stuart / Carina Jurs
Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700
Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

About Emergex

Emergex, a UK-based biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T-Cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as COVID-19, Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex combines validated technologies together with the very latest scientific insights to develop its vaccines, including using synthetic peptide codes determined on actual infected cells and using a proprietary gold nanoparticle carrier system for programming.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programme is a vaccine for Dengue Fever, which may also be disease modifying for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex also has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine and a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Brazil-based Oswaldo Cruz Foundation ‘Fiocruz’ for the development of viral vaccines. This initially covers the development of a vaccine that universally
targets diseases within the flavivirus family such as Dengue Fever, Zika and Yellow Fever but could be expanded to include the development of vaccines to target other viral families that are endemic to the region.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.

About George Mason University

George Mason University is Virginia’s largest public research university. Located near Washington, D.C., Mason enrolls more than 37,000 students from 130 countries and all 50 states. Mason has grown rapidly over the last half-century and is recognized for its innovation and entrepreneurship, remarkable diversity, and commitment to accessibility.

The Institute for Biohealth Innovation (IBI) promotes and supports biohealth-related research activities of faculty, staff, and students at George Mason University. The IBI connects Mason researchers in biohealth with potential collaborators, both within the university and externally, to advance human health research. Learn more and hear more from our researchers at ibi.gmu.edu.

The College of Science at Mason is a leader in scientific discovery creating innovative solutions for the rapidly-changing needs of today’s world. Mason’s College of Science blends traditional science education with sought-after programs in disciplines as diverse as personalized medicine, infectious diseases, geoinformatics, climate dynamics, materials science, astronomy, forensic science, and applied mathematics. The College encourages meaningful education and research at all levels offering innovative undergraduate programs, minors, certificates, and graduate degree opportunities, as well as global, transfer-focused, and online, or hybrid, programs that allow professionals the opportunity to reskill or change careers. Learn more at science.gmu.edu.

George Mason University Biomedical Research Laboratory is one of thirteen Regional Biocontainment Laboratories constructed with funding support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health (NIAID/NIH). The BRL is a state-of-the-art laboratory with biosafety level 3 and aerosolization capabilities where scientists perform pioneering research of infectious diseases, both emerging and potential bio threat agents. Learn more at ncbid.gmu.edu

Emergex Vaccines forms US subsidiary (Emergex USA) by acquisition of laboratories, technology and assets of US-based T cell specialist biotech ImmProNano

  • Acquisition brings critical technical pre-clinical vaccine development capabilities in-house and establishes US based Emergex subsidiary
  • Emergex uniquely develops novel 100% synthetic ‘set-point’ T cell priming vaccines to address some of the world’s most pathogenic infectious diseases
  • Current COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing threat of pandemic flu demonstrate urgent global need for safe, effective vaccines which can be rapidly developed and deployed

Abingdon, UK, 1 September 2020 – Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited (‘Emergex’), a company tackling major global infectious disease threats through the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T cell immune response, today announces that it has significantly strengthened its technology platform and formed US subsidiary, Emergex USA, by acquiring the laboratories, technology and assets of US-based biotech ImmProNano Inc. Financial details of the transaction were not disclosed.

ImmProNano (IPN), based in Doylestown, PA is a specialist contract research organization in the field of Human Leukocyte Antigen T cell immunology and immunoproteomics, utilizing state of the art mass-spectrometry to determine Class I major histocompatibility complex expression libraries of viral infected cells. These libraries are critical to the development of vaccines to high pathogen viruses and intracellular bacteria. IPN also has unparalleled expertise in the T cell immunology of infectious disease and T cell vaccine development.

IPN has completed all pre-clinical testing in animals and ex vivo human samples for Emergex’s recent vaccine programs including Francisella tularensis, Yellow fever, Zika, Dengue, Influenza and COVID-19.

ImmProNano’s laboratory facilities and key employees will now form Emergex’s US subsidiary. The team will continue to work closely with Emergex’s state of the art UK R&D facility and also form critical interactions with Emergex’s other vaccine collaborators at George Mason University, USA and the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology of Singapore (A*STAR).

Storme Moore-Thornicroft, co-founder and COO of Emergex, commented: “ImmProNano has been a trusted partner for several years, their deep expertise in T cell immunology complementing our novel approach to vaccine development. This acquisition establishes a US base and brings together key elements of the vaccine development process in-house, an important next step as we look to advance promising vaccine candidates in areas including Dengue Fever, pandemic flu and other globally important infectious diseases. The critical need for the ability to develop and manufacture potent vaccines in a timely and cost-effective manner has never been clearer and today’s agreement ensures Emergex is well placed to meet this goal.”

– Ends –

For further information, please contact:

At the Company
Emergex
Storme Moore-Thornicroft, Executive Director
Phone: +44 (0)1235 527589
Email: smt@emergexvaccines.com
Consilium Strategic Communications
Chris Gardner / Sue Stuart / Carina Jurs
Phone: +44 (0)20 3709 5700
Email: Emergex@consilium-comms.com

About Emergex

Emergex, a UK-based biotechnology company headquartered in Abingdon, UK, is pioneering the development of synthetic ‘set point’ vaccines which prime the T cell immune response to address some of the world’s most immediate health threats such as Dengue Fever, Zika, Ebola, pandemic flu and serious intra-cellular bacterial infections.

These set-point vaccines modify the initial immune status of recipients in a way that ‘primes’ their immune systems to recognise subsequent infectious agents much like a natural infection would do, preventing an acute or severe manifestation of the disease.

Emergex combines validated technologies together with the very latest scientific insights to develop its vaccines, including using synthetic peptide codes determined on actual infected cells and using a proprietary gold nanoparticle carrier system for programming.

The Company has a growing pipeline of vaccine candidates. The most advanced development programme is a vaccine for Dengue Fever, which may also be disease modifying for other Flaviviruses such as the Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. Emergex also has programmes in development for a universal Influenza vaccine and a universal Filovirus vaccine (including viruses such as Ebola and Marburg) and discovery programmes for a Yellow Fever Booster vaccine and a Chikungunya vaccine.

Emergex has partnered with the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) of Singapore to develop a vaccine for the emerging threat of Hand, Foot and Mouth (HFM) disease and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Brazil-based Oswaldo Cruz Foundation ‘Fiocruz’ for the development of viral vaccines. This initially covers the development of a vaccine that universally targets diseases within the flavivirus family such as Dengue Fever, Zika and Yellow Fever but could be expanded to include the development of vaccines to target other viral families that are endemic to the region.

Find out more online at www.emergexvaccines.com.